Lasers in Metalworking: Competing Rivals Enter the Market DOI: 10.22184/1993-7296.FRos.2023.17.4.260.261
«PHOTONICS‑2023»: There are More Lasers DOI: 10.22184/1993-7296.FRos.2023.17.4.262.271
The laser, optical and optoelectronic technologies play an important role in the upgrade of a number of backbone sectors of the Russian national economy and its innovative development. Based on a brief overview of the products exhibited at PHOTONICS‑2023, an attempt was made to highlight the trends in the tech business in the field of photonics.
Method of Detecting Artifacts on a Complex Background by an Optical-Eelectronic System DOI: 10.22184/1993-7296.FRos.2023.17.4.272.282
A procedure for developing a detection method using a passive optoelectronic system of an unmanned aircraft against a complex background formed by atmospheric radiation in the far infrared range (8–13 microns) is proposed. The atmospheric background on which the unmanned aircraft is detected is formed by the radiation of the cloudy atmosphere when observed from the Earth’s surface. Of particular interest is the complex background created by cumulus clouds of different scores or other classes of clouds with discontinuities. The following assumptions are accepted: a short-focus optoelectronic system has a wide field of view, video information about the artifact and background characteristics is presented in binary form. The processed video stream is a two-dimensional array, the elements of which contain information about the level of energy brightness of radiation in the selected direction. The emphasis is on the need to monitor changes in the structure of the emitting background and the absence of the need to process each frame of the video stream.
Unmanned Aircraft System for Automatic Detection and Determination of Coordinates of Forest Fires in the Ultraviolet Spectrum DOI: 10.22184/1993-7296.FRos.2023.17.4.284.292
The article provides information about the device of an unmanned aircraft system. It tells about the requirements for drones and about the device of optoelectronic ultraviolet solar-blind direction finders.
The article discusses the requirements for optoelectronic UV-solar-blind direction finders from the point of view of detecting a fire source and transmitting this information to rescue services. The emphasis is placed on the devices of UV direction finders based on multi-channel photomultipliers, which have a high potential for timely detection of fires and rapid response to extinguish them.
Erecting Sighting System with Variable Magnification DOI: 10.22184/1993-7296.FRos.2023.17.4.318.324
The article describes the design of the pancratic erecting system that allows to expand the range of magnifications in the optical sight up to 5–8 times and obtain a high-quality reticle image when using the illumination.
Hardware and Software Package for the Study of Small-Scale Variations of Greenhouse Gases DOI: 10.22184/1993-7296.FRos.2023.17.4.294.306
To study the nature of greenhouse gas variations, a hardware and software complex has been created, consisting of the 52.5‑meter laser strainmeter, the 17.5‑meter laser strainmeter, the laser nanobarograph and the mobile laboratory Research Vessel “Professor Gagarinsky”, consisting of an atmochemical measuring complex (Picarro gas analyzer), the complex of meteorological instruments on the upper deck of the bridge, the vessel’s gas analysis laboratory and the flow-through system. When processing experimental data on variations of deformations of the upper layer of the Earth’s crust and variations of atmospheric pressure at Shultz Cape, and in the analysis of variations of methane, carbon dioxide and water vapor in the near-water atmosphere on the shelf of the Sea of Japan at a distance of about 2 km from Shultz Cape, general patterns were established in the behavior of the studied parameters of the upper layer of the Earth’s crust and the near-water layer of the atmosphere in the infragravity range. The general powerful oscillations with periods from 7 min 59.1 s to 7 min 45.5 s, 28 min 28.8 s, from 30 min 07.6 s to 31 min 59.1 are identified, the primary source of which can be associated with both atmospheric processes and the main (radial) tone of the Earth’s own vibrations 0S0.
Features of the Spectral Surface Estimation of Titanium Implants for Animals DOI: 10.22184/1993-7296.FRos.2023.17.4.326.336
The paper presents the study results relating to the material state of the implants made of titanium alloy and coated with chitosan. The implants have been studied before and after preclinical use in animals. A feature of this research method is the use of Raman scattering spectroscopy with a high sensitivity in the region of 400–1 800 cm−1. Confirmation of the implant surface study results was obtained using the scanning electron microscopy. The details of spectral changes are taken as an indirect estimate of the complete biodegradation of the implant coating after one month.
Hollow Chain-like Beams DOI: 10.22184/1993-7296.FRos.2023.17.4.308.317
We have considered the diffraction of the first-order Bessel beam by zone plates with two odd open Fresnel zone to generate chain-like beams with an embedded phase singularity. We have shown that the capsule size depends on the number of the second odd open Fresnel zone and the zone plate focal length. The change of the zones relative illumination leads to the change of the contrast between dark and light regions. The best contrast corresponds to the equal illumination of the zones. We have experimentally generated a chain-like beam with an embedded vortex by the first-order Bessel beam diffraction by zone plates with the first and the ninth open Fresnel zones. We experimentally proved the dislocation presence and investigated the main beam features. We demonstrated sufficiently good agreement between experimental and numerically calculated results.