ELANIK Laser Spectrometer Will Easily Reveal the Secret of the Metal The company «Laser-export» (the main company of the LASER-COMPACT group at present) represents the ELANIK laser spectrometer – the first hand-held analyzer of the elemental composition of metals and alloys. The device is capable of measuring the concentration of carbon (up to 0.01%) in steels and cast irons without the use of inert gas. The ELANIK laser spectrometer is listed in the State Register of Measuring Instruments of the Russian Federation under number 70911–18.
Laser Surface Modification of Bandage Steels with Tungsten Carbide Surface metal-ceramic composite layers formation provides significant wear resistance increasing. For this aim, laser-powder processing can be used. With the powder feeding coaxial to the laser beam, it is possible to make a deep hardened layer, but the laser radiation intensity decreasing when the beam paces through the powder flow and the heating of the particles flying in the irradiated region are to be taken into consideration. The calculations showed that when realizable process parameters are used, laser beam intensity decreasing reaches the level of 10% on the component surface. The condition of a particle that is injected into the melted steel depends on its size. The relatively small particles can be partly melted, and it causes the intensification of the tungsten diffusion into the steel.
Development of Technology for Laser Synthesis of Antifriction Friction Surface of Large-Sized Ship Propeller Shafts Customers have increased demands on reliability, operational efficiency and environmental friendliness of ships of the Arctic navigation. The propulsion systems of Arctic navigation ships, in particular icebreakers, consist of a powerful multi-shaft powerplant with a unit capacity of 20 MW and more, and a short rigid shaft line with a minimum number of bearings. It is proposed to use the technology of powder laser deposition of bronze on a steel sleeve for forming an antifriction friction surface.
Obtaining High-Strength Laser Welds of Aircraft-Grade Aluminium Alloys Experimental studies of laser welding of aviation-grade aluminum alloys were carried out. To improve the mechanical properties of the welds, an integrated approach was applied, including laser welding in the optimal mode and post processing (quenching, intermediate plastic deformation, artificial aging) of the welded joints. For the first time, a comprehensive comparative study of the effect of heat treatment of welds and main alloys of the A5M, AMg6, 1420, 1424 and 1441 and B‑1469 grades was carried out. For all stages of heat treatment, the effect of the chemical composition of the alloy on the strength and microstructure of the weld is determined. As a result of this work, a complex technology has been developed for creating weld joints of modern high-strength, thermally hardened aluminum alloys, which includes laser welding and subsequent special heat treatment of samples.
Optimal laser welding modes were found that ensure the production of welds without defects in the form of open porosity, undercuts, cracks in the weld and the heat-affected zone. The postprocessing of welded joints obtained under optimal laser welding conditions was carried out on the basis of heat treatment (quenching + artificial aging). It is shown that, by changing the heat treatment regimes, it is possible to control the mechanical parameters of welded joint: strength and plasticity of the samples.
For the first time for welded joints obtained by laser welding and optimal post-processing for aluminum-lithium thermally processed alloys, mechanical characteristics were achieved comparable to the value for the alloy in delivery condition.
Application of Laser Emission Spectrometry (LIBS) for In-Situ Identification of Materials of Atomic Reactors Rods Method of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) allows to determine the elemental composition of the material under study. However, when search for steel components of atomic reactors predisposed to increased risk of corrosion due to abnormally low silicon concentration, identification difficult. Characteristic emission lines of silicon that are mainly in the UV region of the spectrum, strongly absorbed in the optical fiber, used in the instrumental implementation of the method. Presented elegant way to get around these limitations when deciding whether to issue a timely withdrawal from the operation of rods of defective material.
Autonomous Laser Pressure Fluctuation Meter An autonomous laser pressure meter for under water using is described. The using of optical measurement methods based on interference methods, optimization of the device design based on existing design experience, made it possible to develop and create a compact device having a high accuracy of measuring pressure fluctuations in a wide frequency range. The device can be used far from the coastline, since it provides the possibility of its autonomous operation, for which a container connected to the device, equipped with batteries, a system for collecting and storing information, was developed. Sensors outside and inside of the meter allow data correction depending on changes in the temperature of the interferometer and seawater, and an additional power interface and data port allows you to connect external devices to extend the functionality of the instrument.
Selection of Spectral Range for Screening Systems in the Terahertz Range A complex for detecting prohibited substances when they are hidden in the elements of clothing has been developed. The complex operates in the visible, IR and THz ranges. Spectral studies of the transmittance of THz radiation were carried out with samples of packaging materials and fabrics: cotton, denim, wool, pigskin, polyethylene (about 0.2 mm thick), paper (about 0.2 mm thick). The frequency range in which all samples of packaging materials and clothing fabrics are most transparent is determined.
The Results of the Exhibition Metalworking‑2019 in the Context of State Policy of Digitization of the Economy The exhibition «Metalworking‑2019» traditionally covered almost all aspects of mechanical engineering, metalworking, and machine-tool construction. New sections of the exhibition appeared this year – «Welding and related technologies» and «Robotics and production automation». Section «Additive Technologies. Industrial 3D printing was developed. The exhibition organizers paid close attention to additive technologies, which are an integral component of the implementation of the Industry 4.0 concept. This is one of the most promising areas for the innovative development of domestic production.
New Optoelectronic Schemes Constructed Based on Relief Reflective Diffractive Structures with Rectangular Profile The article describes a number of new schemes designed to measure small angular displacements and oscillations, to modulate laser radiation, and also to filter the spectrum of optical radiation in the visible and infrared wavelengths. The operation of these schemes is based on the effects observed when a laser beam is reflected from deep diffractive relief structures with a rectangular profile, with a relief depth from a quarter of the wavelength to several wavelengths due to laser radiation. The applications of these devices are varied. For example, sensors of small angular displacements and vibrations can be used in the study of vibrations and in the design of seismometers and tiltmeters. A mechanically driven modulator operates in the low-frequency modulation region, but can provide analogue modulation of the radiation power with different modulation depths from zero to one hundred percent. Optical filters built on the basis of deep relief reflective structures have oscillating dependences of the transmission coefficient on the wavelength. It is possible to select parameters in such a way that the filter has a zero transmission coefficient at a given wavelength and a transmission coefficient close to unity in another given area. The advantages of a filter of this type can be attributed simply to its production and the possibility of realigning the spectral characteristics of the filter within wide limits.