Application of Therahertz Technologies in Biophotonics. Part 1: Methods of Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging of Tissues
In recent decades, there has been growing interest in the use of terahertz (THz) technology for the early non-invasive, minimally invasive and intraoperative diagnosis of malignant neoplasms featuring different nosologies and localizations. THz diagnostic methods are based on THz spectroscopy and imaging of tissues, using natural (endogenous) neoplasm markers. The abovementioned makes THz diagnostics attractive in comparison with other methods, often including the introduction of exogenous markers into the body. Despite significant progress in the considered branch of science, the THz instruments are far from clinical practice due to the high cost, bulkiness, low ergonomics and lack of an effective THz element base. This two-part paper discusses the current state of research in the diagnosis of malignant neoplasms using THz spectroscopy and imaging. The first part discusses the properties of THz radiation, the specifics of its interaction with biological tissues. Special attention is paid to the THz pulsed spectroscopy, which is increasingly used in THz biophotonics.