Intercellular communication through coherent radiation. Part 2
In the first part of the article, the history of the issue was reflected [1–24], experimental results on the detection of phenomenon of remote intercellular interaction (RII), which were successfully reproduced in many laboratories [25–31], were given, the various concepts of field interaction mechanism were discussed [32–39], the special attention was paid to the detection of biosystem capability to generate coherent photons [40–46], and the necessary conditions for existence of field communication channel were determined [47–53]. It was shown that low-intensity coherent radiation enhances the effect of remote intercellular interaction, that own radiation of cells fulfilling the communication function has higher statistical orderliness (coherence) in comparison with natural light. Therefore, in order to recognize superweak signals of biochemical luminescence against the background of significantly more intensive natural illumination, we introduced the assumption that cells have the capability to generate coherent (correlated by phases) photons and respond to them by the increase of functional activity . This assumption is true when the following condition is observed: the significant stochastization (disturbance of phase correlation) of photon group does not occur in biological environment at least within several cell layers. But let us consider if the statistical properties of coherent radiation are retained in case of propagation through several cell layers.
Earlier in the papers [45, 55] it was shown that quasi-monochromatic radiation retains the spatial coherence, which is sufficient for the record by phase detector, in case of propagation through the plant tissue with the thickness of several millimeters (Fig. 5). Tens and hundreds of cell layers are contained in such thickness. Similar results were obtained using the animal tissues [56, 57]. There are no grounds to talk about the significant loss of time coherence because the speed of scattering center movement in cells is low and influence of other effects is insignificant. Thus, such condition, which is required for the existence of field communication channel, as absence of coherence loss is observed.
ARE CELLS CAPABLE TO RESPOND TO THE COHERENCE OF ACTIVE RADIATION?
Are cells capable to respond to the coherence of active radiation, in other words, can they differentiate the statistical orderliness of electromagnetic field? This matter has been discussed for over 35 years already. In the scientific literature there are two diametrical points of view substantiated. Their detailed analysis is given in the papers [53, 55]. The qualitative evaluation of statistical properties of radiation, which has impact on biological objects, is the basis of contradictions. Quasi-monochromatic light obtained from different sources (laser, light-diode, gas-discharge, heat sources) is traditionally divided into two categories by specialists: "coherent" and "incoherent" without indication of quantitative values of these parameters. Such approach does not allow interpreting explicitly the experimental results and often results in erroneous conclusions.
Therefore, the answer to risen question was received in the following experiment. The dynamic system "master – parasite", which element cells were different in size and interacted on the basis of mechanism of induced immunity, was irradiated by quasi-monochromatic light with high or low coherence. Such system included the fruits of apple tree (size of cells 40–50 µm) inseminated with the spores of pathogenic fungi (size of cells 3–8 µm). Helium-neon laser was used as the source of high-coherence radiation, and incandescent lamp with the system of light filters and aperture diaphragms was used as the source of low-coherence radiation. In both light fluxes the energy parameters were similar and did not differ within the limits of measurement error: wavelength in maximum of spectral line was equal to 633 nm, power density – 4 W/m 2. The statistical orderliness of radiation was estimated on the basis of characteristic parameters of spatial time coherence: length of coherence Lk and correlation radius rk. They determine the volume of field coherence or space area with quite high correlation of phases of photon group. In case with laser radiation, Lk and rk exceeded 1000 µm. In case with incandescent lamp, both parameters were equal approximately 8 µm. The control was under conditions of background illumination of 30–40 lux with correlation radius and coherence length of about 1 µm; it was carefully isolated from quasi-monochromatic radiation. Experiment and its methods are described in details in the papers [53, 55]. Let us discuss the most important results.
The dynamic system "master – parasite" demonstrated directly opposite character of responses to the light with low and high statistical orderliness of phases of photon group. Low-coherence radiation increased the losses of marketable products in comparison with non-irradiated control group as a result of impairment of fruits with fungal infection. This result indicates the grown activity of comparatively small cells of parasite. And vice versa, high-coherence radiation at all durations of treatment significantly decreased the fruit disease (Fig. 6). It can be assumed that in this case the functional activity increased not only in the cells of parasite but in larger-size cells of master [56–58]. Their immune reaction, which became more intensive as a result of laser irradiation, suppressed the development of pathogenic fungi.
Comparison of cell sizes in the system "master – parasite" with the statistical field parameters results in the conclusion that the functional activity grows more noticeably in the cells, which completely fit into the volume of coherence of active radiation. In case with laser, such condition is observed in relation to both system components. When using the quasi-monochromatic light of incandescent lamp, only smaller cells of parasite fit in the volume of coherence and only in these cells the significant intensification of functional activity was observed. Therefore, the value of detected area of field phase correlations is stipulated by the largest size of cell D, and the condition of identification of coherent signal has the following form: Lk; rkі D. Then, the parameter D serving as the threshold of discrimination of statistical radiation properties can be applied as certain biological measure of coherence of optical radiation.
Taking into account the value of specified criterion D, the conclusion can be drawn that the whole volume of cell participates in the evaluation of statistical radiation properties. In such case the most probable phase detector includes the membranous pool of cell or set of cellular membranes. The lipid bilayer itself practically does not absorb the radiation of visible spectral region but the reception of photons is performed by associated chromoproteids. Probably, their excitation by sufficiently coherent (by criterion D) light increases the probability of cooperative processes in biomembranes and results in discrete (trigger) variation of their regulatory functions. Due to this fact, the biological efficiency of coherent radiation can be quite high in order to allow using the superweak light fluxes for communication purposes by the cells. Such model does not contradict to well known properties of biological membranes [59, 60] and agrees with the conceptions of H. Frohlich  and H.D. Devyatkov et al. [19, 20, 62] with respect to cooperative and coherent processes in cellular structures.
Requirement of coherence standardization by criterion D does not exclude the observation of other conditions for photo-regulatory system functioning. Radiation wavelength must correspond with the absorption spectrum of the relevant acceptor, for example, PC, CrC or CC, and the cell itself must be competent or have capability to respond to active stimulus.
Obtained experimental results indicate that conditions required for the participation of superweak endogenous radiation in photo-regulatory processes are observed in biological systems. The fluxes of coherent photons (coherent waves) generated by cells can emerge by the amplitude (interfere) forming the electromagnetic field with certain distribution of intensity in space. The configuration of such field will depend on the correlation of phases of individual radiators and their topology. As a result, the capability of selective stimulation and synchronization of cell activity or implementation of morphogenetic process occurs. Experiments on holographic induction of morphogenesis confirm this statement [45, 63].
Carried out studies allow drawing the conclusion that biochemical luminescence, or more properly its coherent component, is the mysterious biofield, and correlated radiation of individual cells united into the field of integral organism can play the role of "development engineer" or form-regulatory factor.