ptics refers to one of the basic branches of physics and, like all natural sciences, it developed together with mankind. The science "optics" includes many easily-explainable everyday phenomena and experiences which are based on their simple observation, first of all (for example, atmospheric phenomena – rainbow, halo, Moon and Sun eclipses), and results of long-term astronomical observations which often require the special calculations. Along with the interest in the determination of regularities of the Sun motion, the interest in the nature of solar radiation occurred. And although people were interested in the "optical" processes for many centuries and millenniums, the practical achievements in optics are 400-500 years old. They were obtained in different countries and even in different continents on the basis of accumulated experience, knowledge and designed initial imperfect optical tools which were used for the temple (religious) purposes and in the interests of astronomy (astronomy always gave chance to the optics development). Development of handicrafts, which were connected with the creation of individual optical parts used in household, favored the consolidation of statehood, extension of cities-kingdoms .
During the antique period of human society (Hellas, Roman Empire, Carthage, Byzantine Empire), the ancient philosophers having determined the optics as light science had to answer the question: "What is light?" For many nations, for example, for Egyptians, the concepts "light" and "Sun" were identical. The answer did not come to the geometrical presentation and demonstration of light ray propagation. Due to the observation and study of optical phenomena, many philosophic categories have occurred and were developed, for example, concepts of external and internal, primary and secondary, illusory and real, similar and opposite, various theories on the light nature were formed. The main theories are as follows [2-4]:
Theory of visual rays.
Atomic theory – theory of so-called mapping and air imprints.
Theory of interaction of internal light, visual and external rays.
Theory of intermediation of transparent medium which has some characteristics similar to the wave representations.
Theory of air tension which is the variant of the theory of visual rays (not rays themselves reach objects but their effect on intermediate air).
Theory of direct mental long-range action (telepathy).
Theory of visual rays was used more frequently than other theories. During the several centuries, big group of philosophers assumed that visual rays are emanated by eyes and not by Sun and then rays scatter in the straight lines to the object and create the impression of visibility [1-3]. Founder of antique philosophy and science Thales (approx. 625–547 BC), well-known mathematician Pythagoras (572–500 BC), Heraclitus (544–483 BC), Empedocles (490–430 BC), Archytas (435–360 BC), Plato (428–347 BC), Euclid (330–277 BC), Archimedes (287–212 BC). Every philosopher*) set forth his own variant of this theory, which often was original, in more detail. Thus, Pythagoras gave his point of view which is close to the modern one and stated that bodies become visible due to the particles emanated by them. As prove to this theory, scientists gave example of animal eyes which illuminate at night. According to their opinion, eyes of blind person do not see because they do not irradiate beams.
Instead of visual rays, Empedocles in his theories used "ultrathin tentacles" which were irradiated by observation eyes and "embraced" viewed object. He deemed white color as the property of fire and black color as the property of water.
Other part of thinkers of Greek school during the same period of time represented the vision in the form of very thin fluids which are emanated from object to eye – Leucippus (500–440 BC), Democritus (460–370 BC).
Later, Empedocles and Plato explained vision through the fluids from observer’s eye and external sources. This theory was supported by Socrates (469–399 BC), Seneca (4 BC - 65), Claudius Ptolemy (approx. 85–165) and Claudius Galen (129–201). Plato supposed that vision source is the soul which irradiates beam cones illuminating object with the help of eyes. Connecting with the external light, they create the special "visual body" which extends from the observer to the object. This theory received the name of "sinaugogy" . Let us consider : "First of all, gods arranged luminous eyes from organs. According to their concept, the body, which would not have burning properties of fire but give mild fire inherent to the day, should occur. And gods caused that the fire which is related to the day light and contained inside of us is poured out in pure form through eyes which keep the roughest part of fire". Plato: "When the day light surrounds the vision flow, then the similar object coming to the similar object connects to it and towards the eye pupils forms one body in connection with the related object wherever the falling object from inside would run into the thing which meets it outside". "And when the related fire leaves for night, this fire of eyes stands apart because coming to the dissimilar it changes and goes out not connecting anymore with near air due to the absence of fire in it" (the mild fire of eyes corresponds to the fire of the Sun, and closure of eyelids for the night time corresponds to the sunset). Well-known researcher of ancient vision theories, Academician S.I. Vavilov often quotes Plato in his works: "There is no only seeing object or only visible object", "The visible object sees itself in the seeing object and the seeing object is the visible object".
In order to see, the eye itself must be bright and sunny: "If the eye is not sunny how can we see light? If we do not have own divine power how can the divine things delight us?" .
Color picture of the surrounding world is the direct consequence of eye existence. Eye is the entelechy) of physical light: it "is formed at the light for the light that the internal light could meet with the external light" .
The fundamental basis of these two theories is the principle of reflectivity: the visual perception is intrusion of eydels or reflection of the visual rays emanating from eyes .
According to the conception of the famous Roman poet Titus Lucretius Carus, the visibility of material bodies is not infinite, "primary corpuscles with different shapes" (kind of fluids)  which are in constant movement represent its limit . Odors, moisture evaporation, formation of visual sensation are explained by this concept. In his poem, Lucretius says about the corpuscular nature of light. Its particles – corpuscles "… they fly everywhere consisting of transparent tissue, finally, they are all ghosts which appear to us reflecting in mirror or in water, or in any shiny surface; since in their appearance they are similar to the real objects probably they refer to the images which emanate from these objects".
In their writings, Lucretius, Epicurus (approx. 342–271 BC) and Heraclitus sometimes leave metaphysical concepts and become closer to the materialistic concepts : "Image transfer from the object to the eye is the light transfer; "on their way" to the eye atoms of light can go through water or glass generating eydels"; "Light tends to the dark pupil and the heat of external fire is perceived by cold watery eye membranes, in other words, the formation of visual image is the process stipulated by the realities of surrounding world".
The Roman scientist, Plutarch (approx. 45 – approx. 127) explains the presbyopia by the fact that the area of intersection of visual cones from left and right eyes, where the object is seen in the best way, shifts from the observer’s eyes in old age.
During the period from 330 BC till 100 BC (during so-called Alexandria period of antiquity ) astronomy was prospering and large-scale astronomic discoveries were made, many mathematical laws were formulated, original (lensless) viewfinders and igniting parabolic mirrors were designed. Alexandria philosophers, thinkers and scientists – Eratosthenes (approx. 276–194 BC) who managed the famous Alexandrian Library, great astronomer Hipparchus (approx. 190–125 BC), Hero (lived in the second part of the 1st century AD, details of his life are not known) - famous ancient optician who 1600 years before the formulation of Fermat’s principle in 1679 discovered one of the main laws of optical imaging , - made great contribution into the centuries-old development of the theories of visual perception: it was the period of optical science establishment.
Great philosopher and thinker, Aristotle (384 - 322 BC) introduces the materialistic elements into the existing theory on light nature: "… light is the excitation of the medium located between the object and eye. Light is not fire or heat in its common sense, it is not emanation from any body but manifestation of fire or something fiery in transparent medium" .
Outstanding Arabian scholar, well-known physicist of the Middle Ages, Alhazen (Abu Ali Haytham or Ibn al-Haytham) (965–1039) wrote famous treatise "Opticae thesaurus" ("Optics Treasure") respected by the opticians from all around the world  which was translated into the Latin language in 1270 only. Alhazen describes the structure of eye and using the experiments he proves the invalidity of the conceptions of ancient Greek scientists Plato and Euclid concerning the light as the rays which emanate from eye and "probe" objects. He proposed his own vision theory. According to the conception of Alhazen, "natural light and color rays influence on the eye". He also deemed that some perceptive eye point corresponds to every point of observed object.
Metaphysical conception of the light nature was widespread. Thus, in 16th – 17th centuries in Kiev and in many other cities of Ukraine, brotherhoods, schools and collegiums (with the course of time their names were changed) existed in the capacity of cultural centers. In 1701 on the basis of order of Peter I Kiev Collegium was granted the rights of academy.
In 1708 Theophan Prokopovich (1681–1736) gave two-year course in physics in the academy and this course contained the following conception on light: "Light is the shiny layer of luminous bodies and illumination is the broadening or type or some representation of light which is also connected with other things. Light exists on the Sun or in fire and illumination exists in illuminated air. We cannot see light. We only see what the illumination is".
The new course in physics was given in the Kiev Academy in 1793 by Iriney Falkovsky (1762–1823). The optics subject matter was defined in the following manner: "Optics is the science on the vision of objects by means of the rays propagating from objects to eyes on straight road" .
Results of thoughts and experiments of antique thinkers and philosophers led to the creation of a number of vision models .
Extramission. We see because our eyes emanate straight vision rays and cover the contour by the vision cone with the peak located in pupil (Pythagoras, Euclid).
Intramission. All bodies emanate flying images which partially get into the observer’s eyes (Democritus, Epicurus, Lucretius).
Sinaugogy and synaesthesis. Vision is the combination of two factors: rays of internal fire emanating from eyes and external day light. When meeting they generate the common vision body which touches the observed object and transfers the elastic pressure to the vision center located behind the eye (Empedocles, Plato).
Accidentia. Vision is generated by the excitation of surrounding medium, sensation occurring during the movement of pervasive luminous medium – pellucid, transparent state of which is activated by the external light, is transferred to the external membranes of eye and vision images occur due to the color distinction of objects (Aristotle).
Academician S.I.Vavilov, one of the most outstanding domestic researchers in the history of world optics, noted that the theory of vision rays "was not mistake at all, it was hypothesis which allowed constructing the geometrical optics of reflective surfaces with correct quantitative conclusions by the ancient people despite the absence of information about the eye" .
Even 300 years ago, when scientists and engineers started using the optics laws in practice (sometimes they did it without complete realization) and had many structures of glasses, spotting scopes, telescopes, the nature of light still remained unexplored and light phenomena were still explained on the basis of primitive and metaphysical conceptions of light.
Following the ideas of Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) and developing the papers of Francesco Grimaldi (1618–1663) and Robert Hooke (1635–1703) Christiaan Huygens (1629–1695) assumed that the light excitation refers to pulses of elastic oscillations of ether. In 1678, he finished the development of wave theory of light which was published in 1690 in the famous "Treatise on Light" . In it Huygens tried to explain the known optical phenomena from the perspective "similar to wave". In 1704 Isaac Newton (1643–1727) disagreed with him in the concept that light propagates in the form of rays. This opinion of outstanding scientist-physicist played significant role in the scientific community and it caused delay of the discovery of many optical laws for many decades.
Newton gave such formulations of the basic laws and definitions of optics :
"I understand that light rays refer to the smallest particles in their sequential alternation and simultaneous existence in various lines as well. It is obvious that light consists of sequential and simultaneous parts as well because at the same place you can stop the parts which come at one moment and let pass the parts which come at the next moment, and at the same time you can stop light in one place and let it pass in other place. The stopped part of light cannot be the same as the part which passed through. The smallest light or part of light which can be stopped alone without the rest of light is spread by itself or acts or experiences by itself something like this. I call the light ray the thing that the rest of light does not act on and does not experience".
"Refractivity of light rays is their inclination to the refraction or deviation from their way upon the passage from one transparent body or medium to the other one. Larger and smaller refractivity of rays is their inclination to the larger or smaller deviation from their way upon the analogous incidences to the same medium".
"Reflectivity of rays – their inclination to reflect or go back to the same medium from the other medium on the surface of which they get. The rays are reflected in larger or smaller degree depending on larger or smaller readiness to go back. Such types of rays which are reflected the most upon different incidences or which are entirely reflected faster than other rays upon the increasing ray slope refer to the rays which are reflected the most".
"I call the light which rays are equally refracted as simple, homogeneous and similar light; and I call the light containing the type of rays which are refracted in greater degree than others as complex, inhomogeneous and diverse light".
"I call the colors of homogeneous light as primary, homogeneous and simple colors and the colors of inhomogeneous light as inhomogeneous and complex colors". "The rays which differ by color differ by reflectivity degrees as well".
"Sunlight consists of the rays which differ by reflectivity and the rays, which are refracted in greater degree, are also reflected in greater degree than others".
Newton paid great attention to the periodicity of light phenomena and admitted the possibility of their wave interpretation but he preferred the corpuscular concept of light considering it as the flow of particles which effect the ether (the term "ether" was introduced by Rene Descartes (1596–1660) for the designation of the medium-light carrier which has mechanical properties and causes oscillation in light). Light refraction and reflection, colors of thin films, light diffraction and dispersion are caused by the movement of light particles through the ether with variable density and their interaction with material bodies, according to the concept of Newton. Also Newton assumed that polarization is the initial property of light which is explained through the certain orientation of light particles in relation to the ray formed by them.
Jean-Paul Marat (1743–1793), figure of the French revolution who was philosopher, publicist, practicing physician, scientist-physicist left interesting mark in optics. His conceptions of light properties  did not correspond to the opinion of well-known scientists of that time. In particular, he criticizes the Newton doctrine on different refractivity of light rays. Several extracts from Marat treatise are given below (it appears that the treatise was written only on the basis of his own experience and thoughts).
On the light source: "The question is following: does light surround us constantly or is it emanated by luminous bodies in portions. In order to make sure that light surrounds us constantly and at the same time has some degree of mobility, it is sufficient to think of some well-known phenomena..."
On light movement: "Without received or transferred movement light would not be able to inform the visual organ about impression on the observation object, it is indisputable. But does this movement consist in the pressure caused by the visible bodies sequentially, from one place to another, on light molecules or in the material transfer of light molecules from the bodies which push them away to the bodies on which they act? It becomes clear on the basis of the study of actual phenomena without doubts that this movement consists in the material transfer: availability of the pressure transferred from one place to another, from one area to another area, would require molecules of light fluid to compose continuous medium, and no partial movement could take place because the pressure (weak or strong) on any part of this fluid would spread in all directions".
"Due to the fact that light is in movement all the time and it is not emanated by luminous bodies these bodies just reflect it in the same way as non-transparent bodies; if there is any difference between them in this sense it consists in the fact that the luminous bodies transfer movement to the light and non-transparent bodies just maintain it (movement)".
On light properties: "Besides the qualities which are common for all bodies, the light fluid has its distinctive qualities. First of all, it is necessary to mention its extremely thin structure which is demonstrated in such readiness with which it passes through very dense transparent bodies including the densest bodies such as glass, crystal, diamond etc. Exceptional mobility is added to its extreme thinness: luminous bodies which are the smallest by size cause its movement which velocity is thousand league per second and such rapidity is beyond our imagination".
The properties of our fluid include also the capability to agitate the special sensation: consisting of separate parts with considerably different character, the light can create the sensation of white at the expense of their combination, and their complete absence generates black color, and each one of them is characterized by the capability to evoke the sensation of individual color. Elementary parts causing the sensation of one specific color are called "homogeneous"; the parts which are capable to agitate sensation of different colors are called "heterogeneous"; thus, colors refer exclusively to the light and they are not appropriate for bodies.
By the extreme readiness with which our fluid passes through all transparent bodies, it can be concluded that all parts of fluid consist of discrete particles with spherical shape and striking velocity of their movement results in the conclusion that these particles are far away from each other, in other words, the fluid is extremely sparse".
On media: "The whole empty space and all bodies which have noticeable light transmission are called "media" but those media which have effect on light are called "refractive media". It indicates that this name is applicable only for the bodily, solid and liquid media or fluids; emptiness cannot influence on the light in any manner. According to their impact on light they are called "media of various energies".
In free and homogeneous medium the rays are normally moved in straight line but they change their movement direction only in four different cases: when they get on the periphery of any body; when they get on the polished surface; when they pass through more or less refractive medium at the angle and when they are going to leave the medium which is more refractive than the medium with which it shares borders. In the first case, rays bend in some degree close to the bodies with which they meet (Fig. 1a); in the second case, they bounce off from the surface, on which they get forming the opposite angle equal to the angle upon their incidence, if the perpendicular to it will be drawn (Fig. 1b); in the third case, they break on the surface of the medium, into which they get or from which they come out forming the angles with the surface which have certain correlation (Fig. 1c); in the last case, they go back from the boundary of the medium which they almost left following the way, which they would follow if they were reflected on the boundary of the last medium (Fig. 1d).
The first such measurement is called "deflection", the second one – "reflection", the third one – "refraction" and the fourth one – "retraction").
If we take each of these terms as the root elements, we will obtain derivatives: deflectivity, reflectivity, refractivity, ability to go back; also there are properties of rays to be deflected, reflected, refracted or drawn back.
In accordance with the variation of scattering direction demonstrated by rays, it is reasonable to divide optics into four parts:
Peroptrics – changes of direction which are demonstrated by rays passing on the periphery of bodies;
Catoptrics – change of direction in case of the incidence on polished surfaces;
Dioptrics – when passing through different spheres;
Opizoptrics – when rays go back to the medium through which they just passed.
Peroptrics (according to the conception of Jean-Paul Marat) refers to the new area which covers his (Marat) main discoveries and must be considered as the basis of all other parts; and many phenomena which were not known earlier are considered here and particularly in this area it is possible to cover many other phenomena.
Corpuscular theory retained its predominant position in optics till the beginning of the 19th century, although some outstanding scientists including the Russian academicians Leonhard Euler (1707–1783) and Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov (1711–1765) gave preference to the wave conceptions on the nature of light.
Above-mentioned formulations of light laws which were written by the pen of distinguished scientists-physicists help us to understand the challenge of truth birth.
Demonstration of the phenomenon of light interference in 1801 by Thomas Young (1773–1829) became large-scale evidence of the wave nature of light. In 1815 Augustin-Jean Fresnel (1788–1827) defined Huygens principle more accurately supplementing it with the interference principle of Young. Principle of Huygens-Fresnel did not only give opportunity to explain the linearity of light propagation but also it explained many diffraction phenomena.
Despite the centuries-old discussion between the supporters of corpuscular and wave theories of light which has not finished yet, till the end of the 19th century at the optical plants established in Germany, France, England and in the Russian small and often primitive workshops, tens of types of optical devices for the application in military (spotting scopes, sights, binoculars) and general scientific purposes (telescopes, projection apparatus, photometers, radiometers, "magic" lanterns etc.) were designed.
Constructors and engineers-opticians developed original fabrication methods for glass parts and crystals. Very simple and quite effective so-called "method of optical lap" is the best known method (for more than 100 years) and it is used till the present time.
During the antique period and especially during the Renaissance period original machines for the fabrication of optical parts were designed. It is well known that one of the followers of Galileo Galilei (1564–1616), Evangelista Torricelli (1608–1647) made the telescope optical parts which he could control with the highest accuracy on the basis of his developed method (he did not know interference experiments of Newton). In 1923 Italian scientist-optician V. Ronki developed the new method of control of optical parts and systems (method of shearing interferometry ) with the help of which he controlled the quality of lens surface with the diameter of 83 mm made by E. Torricelli approximately in 1642. Lens stroke scientists due to its high degree of perfection and was referred to the class of modern fine optics. Torricelli died not having discovered his method of lens fabrication and control.
Theoretical works and practical achievements of Rene Descartes (1596–1650) should be marked out; he formulated the law of light ray refraction independently from Willebrord Snellius (1580–1623), managed to perform the calculations of optical devices with hyperbolic and elliptic surfaces and learned to treat lenses with aspherical surfaces as well. In the treatise  in the Section "Dioptrics" he gives drawings of the structure of polishing machine for the treatment of lenses with aspherical surfaces (Fig. 2). Even nowadays, not all opticians include aspherical surfaces (AS) into their made optical devices due to the processing complexity of mass production of AS.
Russia got involved into the solution of optical problems and evaluation of physical phenomena having the optical character mainly for the military purposes during the period of Peter I and by the middle of 1700th succeeded in this area considerably: theoretical base, fundamentals for glass manufacturing and optical instrument engineering were developed by the efforts of great Russian scientist-pioneer M.V. Lomonosov and other scientists-foreigners who were invited to the emperor’s service (Johann Georg Leutmann (1667–1736), Georg Wolfgang Kraft (1701–1754)) and into the established Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences (Leonhard Euler (1707–1782) and others); however, Russia did not succeeded in the retention of technical and scientific potential  for a number of reasons and mainly because of the loss of scientific school which just started to be established: children of noble people preferred the military career and service to the Homeland and not scientific or engineering career) but the military one (their contribution into the consolidation of country military glory is undoubtedly great).
In the area of optics "Russia during 150 years was in anabiosis" but it never stopped to work in this area although it did not force the activities of individual enthusiasts and geniuses-mechanicians who often were self-educated people working in small shops (Ivan Belyaev, Schapper, Kolosov, son of Ivan Belyaev, Andrei Nartov, Ivan Kulibin, Osip Shishorin, Kornelius Reissig, Vladimir Gaufman, Semen Tryndin, Theodor Schwabe, Ivan Urlaub) .
The drastic changes came expectedly and unexpectedly at the same time: Russia which was left behind technically in the beginning of the 20th century lost in the war with Japan; ground forces and marine armada of the admiral Rozhdestvensky suffered defeat mainly due to the absence of modern optical aiming artillery systems.
Accelerated intervention in the organization of optical productions should be referred to the honor of the Russian government and Navy Department (as always, there were overt opponents to the problem solution) with the financing for these purposes.
Establishment of the optical manufacturing relied on the achievements of domestic scientists-physicists, mechanical engineers, regular military specialists (first of all, in the Main Missile and Artillery Directorate and Navy Department) in the area of optics; in the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries their research enriched the world science and created the scientific base for training of the corps of engineers of developing Russian optical industry. These scientists are V.V.Petrov (1761–1834), A.G.Stoletov (1839–1896), P.N.Lebedev (1866–1912), B.B.Golitsyn (1862–1916), V.N.Chikolev (1845–1898), H.I.Wild (1833–1902), N.I.Lobachevsky (1793–1856), D.A.Goldhammer (1860–1922), A.N.Krylov (1863–1945), F.F.Petrushevsky (1829–1904), V.F.Petrushevsky (1829–1891), V.N.Mikhailovsky (1856–1913), A.L.Gershun (1868–1915), Y.N.Perepelkin (1874–1935), S.I.Freiberg (1887–1957) and many other well-known scientists.
In 1865, James Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879) demonstrated that light represents not elastic but electromagnetic waves which propagate with the speed of light. Soon it became clear that ether is not needed for their propagation. Maxwell equations became the fundament of wave optics .
Despite the progress of electromagnetic theory of light by the end of the 19th century it has become clear that it is not sufficient for the description of the processes of light absorption and emission.
In 1900 Max Planck (1858–1947) came to the conclusion that the elementary oscillating system (atom, molecule) gives the wave energy to electromagnetic field or receives it from this field by quanta – portions. In 1905 Albert Einstein (1879–1955) attributed not only energy but pulse and mass as well to the light quanta – photons. Development of Planck idea led to the solution of the problem of thermal radiation and laid the foundation of quantum physics. During the photon absorption the photon ceases to exist and the system which absorbed it receives its energy and pulse ).
Papers of Planck and Einstein gave back many characteristics of corpuscular conceptions to the optics. Quantum theory of light having explained (in the 20th century) the main laws of photoeffect, phenomena of photochemical transformations, interaction of light with substance, Compton effect, Stokes frequency shift of photoluminescence radiation in relation to the frequency of exciting light, combined light scattering became large contribution into the development of optics.
Another 100 years will pass and in the first decade of the 21st century the Russian professor M.M. Miroshnikov (was born in 1926) will address the world community of scientists-opticians again with the suggestion on the necessity to keep and, in individual cases, to clarify concordantly the approved and established terminology in optics, the dualism of which (wave nature and corpuscularity) has become apparent in full in the 20th century through "laser revolution") and "holography") become the operating tool and not subject matter of any discussions of inexperienced employees.
The whole complex of optical sciences M.M.Miroshnikov divided into the basic parts  of the single science – Optics:
Wave optics – science studying the complex of phenomena in which the wave (electromagnetic) nature of light is demonstrated;
Physics of photons (quantum physics) – science on the corpuscular (quantum) properties of light, its microstructure;
Iconics – science on the image, its quality and recognition taking onto account the laws of visual perception;
Optical engineering (traditional optical instrument engineering) – science on the devices based on the wave optics;
Photonics (applied) – science on the devices based on the physics of photons;
Optical material science – science on the properties and methods of generation of optical media with the previously set properties (glass, crystals, ceramics, fiber optics etc.).
In December 1918 in Petrograd the State Optical Institute (SOI), which will be 96 years old in 2014, was established. Read the next issue of magazine about the history of the institute establishment and formation of its traditions.
 Философские течения и биографии философов и мыслителей древности прекрасно изложены профессорами С.К.Стафеевым и М.Г.Томилиным в [2, 3]. Автор, пользуясь случаем, выражает им свою признательность.
 Энтелехия (по Аристотелю) – целеустремленность, целенаправленность, движущая сила, активное начало.
 Эйделы (греч.) – слепки – образы предметов.
 Об этом можно судить по затмениям спутников некоторой планеты. Постоянные наблюдения, сделанные в течение многих веков, показали регулярность движения планет; известен точный момент времени, когда спутник должен вый–ти из тени планеты, в которой он находился; поскольку же этот момент, как оказывается, наступает с опозданием на несколько минут, последнее с основанием истолковывают как время, которое нужно свету для пробега пути от объекта, заслоняющего источник, до нашей планеты (Жан-Поль Марат).
 Это возвращение лучей, произведенное силой притяжения среды, которую они собираются покинуть. Подобные явления происходят на второй поверхности призм, линз, стеклянных пластинок и т.д. Не говоря о рефракции на первой поверхности подобных сред, такие явления аналогичны собственно отражению; однако основа их другая, так как они не вызываются отскакиванием шариков, падающих на воздух при выходе из стекла, потому что эти явления проявляются еще заметнее, когда поверхность стекла соседствует с безвоздушным пространством (Жан-Поль Марат).
 К концу XIX века ситуация стала быстро меняться.
 У М. Планка большой интерес вызывали работы профессора Казанского университета В. А. Ульянина (1863–1931), а также труды российского профессора Б. Б. Голицина.
 Вклад отечественных ученых – оптиков и физиков в этот новый виток развития оптической науки чрезвычайно велик и многообразен. Первооткрыватели в этой области новейшего знания – профессор Валентин Александрович Фабрикант (1907–1991), академики Николай Геннадьевич Басов (1922–2001) и Александр Михайлович Прохоров (1916–2002) (Вместе с Н. Г. Басовым и А. М. Прохоровым Нобелевскую премию за открытие лазеров получил американец Чарльз Таунс (род. в 1915 г.).
 Академик Юрий Николаевич Денисюк (1927–2006) своим открытием в области голографии упрочил позиции волновой оптики, показав и реализовав возможность восстанавливать с голограммы (типично "корпускулярного" продукта) фазовый, амплитудный и спектральный состав объектной световой волны.
 Philosophic schools and biographies of ancient philosophers and thinkers are set forth in detail by the professors S.K.Stafeev and M.G.Tomilin in [2, 3]. Taking this opportunity, author expresses his gratitude to them.
 Entelechy (according to Aristotle) – purposefulness, commitment, motive power, active source.
 Eydels (Greek) – casts – images of items.
 It can be judged on the basis of eclipses of some planet satellites. Constant observations made during many centuries showed the regularity of planets movement; the accurate instant of time when the satellite should come out of the planet shadow in which it was located is known; since this moment occurs with the delay of several minutes, as it turns out, this delay is explained with reason as the time which is needed for the light to travel to the object, which hides the source, to our planet (Jean-Paul Marat).
 This is coming back of the rays accomplished by the attracting force of the medium which they are going to leave. Similar phenomena occur on the second surface of prisms, lenses, glass plates etc. Not speaking of the refraction on the first surface of such media, such phenomena are analogous to the reflection proper; however, their basis is different because these phenomena are shown more noticeably when the glass surface is close to the airless space (Jean-Paul Marat).
 By the end of the 19th century situation started to change quickly.
 Papers of the professor of Kazan University V.A. Ulyanin (1863–1931) and proceedings of the Russian professor B.B. Golitsin aroused great interest of M. Planck.
 Contribution of domestic scientists-opticians and physicists during this new phase of the development of optical science is extremely great and diverse. The pioneers in this area of new knowledge include the professor Valentin Aleksandrovich Fabrikant (1907–1991), academicians Nikolai Gennadyevich Basov (1922–2001) and Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov (1916–2002) (together with N.G. Basov and A.M. Prokhorov, Charles Townes (was born in 1915), American scientist, was awarded the Nobel prize).
 Academician Yuri Nikolaevich Denisyuk (1927–2006) with his discovery in the area of holography strengthened positions of wave optics having demonstrated and implemented the capability to restore the phase, amplitude and spectral structure of object light wave from the hologram (typically "corpuscular" product).