Laser Information Technologies in Medicine, Biology and Geo-Ecology
Diffraction optical elements used for the transformation of form of wavefronts and processing of data and analysis of optical images in astronomy and medicine were presented in the report of A.G. Poleshchuk (Atomic Energy Institute of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk) “Laser Technologies of Synthesis of Computer-Synthesized Holograms”. Speaker showed how the use of thin retarders with the variation of optical thickness laying within the range of radiation wavelength has the effect of phase modulation of laser radiation. Results of the original research activities on the development of equipment and technologies for the production of computer-synthesized holograms with binary, multilevel and continuous profile for the transformation of wavefront form were specified in the report.
Report of V.E. Privalov and V.G. Shemanin (Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University, Saint Petersburg) “Equation of Laser Sounding for Real Lidar” covered the solution of task of lidar sounding of atmospheric aerosol. Cases of the monostatic aerosol lidar for the sounding of atmospheric aerosol and lidar of differential absorption and dispersion for the sounding of iodine molecules in atmosphere were considered. Registration of the finite width of laser generation line for more accurate solution of such lidar equation was performed particularly for the case of very low concentrations of analyzed particles. In order to verify obtained results the value of absorption cross-section of iodine molecules was estimated; this value turned out to be in reasonable agreement with the data of other authors.
Report of A.P. Pogoda, V.F. Lebedev and A.S. Boreisho (D.F. Ustinov Baltic State Technical University “VOENMEKH”, Saint Petersburg) “Geometry Optimization of Multi-Loop Resonator of Holographic Laser” should be noted in relation to the reports on solid-state lasers. Authors suggest using the layout of multi-loop resonator with single or multiple beams crossing in active medium for the wavefront conjugation on four-wave mixing. Alternative layouts of such resonator were considered and criteria of its selection were discussed in the paper.
The question if the action of optically-pumped laser comes to the transformation of pumping radiation into the highly directional radiation was considered in the report of A.V. Shepelev (Russian State University for the Humanities, Moscow) “To Thermodynamic Conditions of Achievement of High-Intensity Radiation”. Author showed that this statement is disputable. In reality, the radiation brightness which is definitely connected with its temperature can be considered as transformable parameter here. It was shown in the report that the process of stimulated radiation is not exclusive for the increasing of brightness. Thermodynamic conditions for achievement of high power density, relationship between brightness concept and wave and quantum description of electromagnetic radiation were analyzed; concepts of thermodynamic and statistic entropy were considered with regards to radiation.
Results of the research of X-ray radiation from the laser-induced vacuum discharges with relatively low values of current amplitudes, voltage and storage energy (10 kA, 20 kV and 20 J respectively) were presented by Y.V. Korobkin and I.V. Romanov (Moscow State University of Radio Engineering, Electronics and Automation, Moscow). Sources of X-ray radiation – micropinches formed in the cathode jet of laser-induced vacuum discharge, conditions for their formation and dependence of their parameters on the amplitude of discharge current and energy of initiating laser pulse were specified in the report “On X-Ray Radiation of Vacuum Spark Discharge Initiated by Laser Pulse”.
Metrological peculiarities of the method of laser phase-shift interferometry which is the basis of the research methods of diffusion processes of many organic and inorganic matters in polyacrylamide-based hydrogels were considered in the report “Application of Laser Phase-Shift Interferometry for the Research of Diffusion Processes in Hydrogels”. Authors – A.Y. Golyaeva, E.V. Dorofeeva, P.Y. Lobanov, I.S. Manuilovich and O.E. Sidoryuk (Research Institute “Polyus”, Moscow) considered the scope of the method applicability and sources of potential mistakes.
Report of O.A. Semenova, A.D. Golubeva, Y.P. Basova, M.V. Barmina, A.V. Marchenko and V.A. Zolotukhina (Clinical Hospital of Russian Railways, Saint Petersburg) “Peculiarities of Photo-Hemotherapy Application for Persons Who Are Ill with Psoriasis in Outpatient Setting” presented the results of modification of the psoriasis standard therapy program. They covered the inclusion of the course of blood laser photo-modification which favors quicker occurrence of illness remission. It turned out that it is reasonable to carry out such therapy during autumn-winter period.
The special attention of audience was drawn to the following presentations at the workshop “Nanotechnologies in Medicine and Biology”. E.E. Mamtsev (Research Institute “Polyus”, Moscow) with the report “Statistical Analysis of Precision Optical Surfaces and Laser Mirrors”. Author presented the analysis of existing level of the processing of precision optical surfaces of pyroceramic substrates by the roughness parameter RMS and quality of applied multilayer dielectric reflective coatings using the metrological methods of optical and mechanical profilometry. It was shown that the necessity of production of mirror substrates with minimum roughness is caused by the requirements of increasing of manufacturing accuracy of the finished product – laser gyroscope.
A.B. Atkarskaya, S.V. Karatsupa, Y.D. Miroshnichenko, D.S. Prokhorenkov and I.S. Rakhimbaev (V.I. Shukhov Belgorod State Technology University, Novorossiysk and Belgorod) presented the results of the diffusion study of silicon dioxide, sodium and calcium oxides in the composites based on float glass. This topic was reflected in two reports: “Diffusion of Oxides from Glass Substrate in Composites with Sol-Gel Nanofilms” and “Diffusion of Oxides from Substrate in Single and Double-Layer Glass Composites with Nanofilms”. Operational parameters of the application technology determine the packing density of solid particles POR in the coating layer and its width which influences on the diffusion of oxides from the substrate and the increase of sol optical transmission value correlates with the intensification of sodium oxide diffusion in composite.
For double-layer coatings of the compositions TiO2 and TiO2+SiO2 the barrier layer protects the functional film of such double-layer composite against the penetration of low-refractive SiO2 very well and upon the penetration of “foreign” oxides into the coating their concentration in the composites TiO2 changes. This fact indicates the efficiency of barrier properties of coatings SiO2.
Report “Analysis of Optical Properties and Nanostructure of IR Light Guides Based on Crystals of Solid Solutions of Silver and Thallium Halogenides (I)” of the following authors: A.S. Korsakov, L.V. Zhukova, A.D. Brevnova, D.S. Vrublevsky and V.V. Zhukov (Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Yekaterinburg) presented the results of the formation technology using the extrusion method of infrared light guides based on the crystals of solid solutions of silver and univalent thallium halogenides. The spectral characteristics of their transmission measured on IR-Fourier spectrometer Shimadzu IR Prestige-21, photo-stability and optical loss (up to 0.1–0.4 dB/m on wavelength of CO2-laser 10.6 µm) were given. Study of light guides in far field using CO2-laser and CCD-camera SPIRICON proved the single-mode operation of IR light guides on wavelength of 10.6 µm.
The most interesting reports which were made during the workshop “Computer Technologies and Systems of Images and Signals Processing” were as follows.
Report of V.P. Bessmeltsev, D.N. Katasonov, V.V. Morozov and V.A. Sluev (Institute of Automation and Electrometry of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk) “Mobile Monitoring System of Cardiac Function of Human Being” introduced the small-sized autonomous portable diagnostic complex which registers the main characteristics of the heart function of human being. Its main advantages are: diminutiveness, absence of wire connections of sensors with the unit for data processing and storing, built-in devices for the identification of critical situations on real time basis integrated with the batch smartphone which automatically transmits data to the specialized medical services. The system prototype contains diminutive capacitance contactless sensors ECG (on the basis of PS 25101 microchip manufactured by Plessey Semiconductors) conjugated with TI СС2540 microcontroller with built-in wireless interface of Bluetooth 4.0 standard. Communicator provides the displaying of monitoring results, change of system parameters, and regular transmission of continuous monitoring data to the special medical server.
Report “Design of 3D Models of Biological Objects and Quick Producing of Test Operative Field” (authors: E.V. Ippolitov, S.V. Kamaev, M.M. Novikov and L.V. Novikova (Institute on Laser and Information Technologies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Shatura, Moscow Region) reflected the topic of design of the test models for teaching of medical personnel. On the basis of tomography data of real patient three-dimensional computer models of human being head with tumor in lower jaw were designed; then, on their basis the prototype of operative field for the performance and development of surgical interventions was produced using the radio manipulating instrument upon radio-frequency hyperthermia of head and neck tumors. Authors showed the capability of design of the similar test operative fields in order to carry out tests and develop the application of multi-functional manipulating instruments for robot-assistance in high-precision surgery.
The largest amount of specialists was present at the workshop “Geo-Technologies and Geo-Ecological Monitoring”. The following reports should be noted here.
I.V. Samokhvalov, S.V. Nasonov, I.D. Bryukhanov, A.G. Borovoy, B.V. Kaul, N.V. Kustova and A.V. Konoshonkin (Tomsk State University, Tomsk) made the report “Assessment of Parameters of Cirrus Clouds Microstructure with Abnormal Backscattering by Polarization Lidar”. During 2011-2013 the cirrus clouds with abnormally high reflection were observed by the Tomsk State University using the unique polarization lidar. Then, assessments of the clouds microstructure obtained during the experiments were compared with the theoretical data. Data base of V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences was used for it; the clouds parameters in this data base were accumulated depending on the dimensions of the present crystalline particles and inclination angle of particles normal relative to zenith direction.
Report of K.M. Firsov, E.V. Bobrov and I.I. Klitochenko (Volgograd State University, Volgograd) “Photometric Measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth and Total Moisture Content in Lower Volga Region” reflected the results of the measurement of aerosol optical depth and total moisture content in Volgograd Region. Systematic observations started with the use of mobile sun photometers SPM developed in V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. On the basis of the results, the first and second moments of the distribution of aerosol optical depth values were estimated for the observation period, average daily and monthly optical aerosol characteristics were assessed, then these characteristics were compared with the data of satellite observations as well as data of moisture aerological sounding.
Several reports were made by the employees of Novorossiysk Polytechnic Institute (branch) Kuban State Technological University (Novorossiysk). V.A. Vavilov, S.V. Polovchenko, P.V. Chartiy and V.G. Shemanin in the report “Reconstruction of Spectrums of Industrial Aerosol Particles Sizes in Flux by Their Average Surface-Volume Size” tried to reconstruct the function of industrial aerosol particles distribution using the prior information on the distribution of particles at different stages of the technological process. It is possible to reconstruct the spectrum of industrial aerosols particles sizes with the sufficient confidence degree on the basis of results of the values measured with the help of laser sounding methods and due to existing functional relations.
Report of V.A. Vavilov, E.I. Vedenin, P.V. Chartiy and V.G. Shemanin “Laser System for Prevention of Accidental Aerosol Emission into Atmosphere” showed the capability of control of the technological process upon the threat of occurrence of accidental emission using the laser system of aerosol control after the cleaning on real time basis. The case when the most probable cause of accident can be the failure of the second stage of cleaning process was considered. In this case the spectrum of particle sizes becomes bimodal and the mode which is typical for the spectrum of particle sizes at the input of the relevant equipment occurs in it. Therefore, the determination of particle size spectrums at output makes it possible to estimate its condition and availability of accidental emission. Suggested prevention system will make it possible to determine not only concentration of the weighed particles using the modified method of spectral transparency but spectrum of particle sizes at output using the modified method of spectral transparency on three wavelengths of laser radiation as well.
V.V. Dyachenko, S.V. Polovchenko, V.V. Rogovsky, O.V. Rogovsky and P.V. Chartiy in their report “Laser Monitoring of Dust Collecting Systems Efficiency Using the Modified Method of Spectral Transparency” suggested using the modified method of spectral transparency for the control of operability of bag filters. Basic diagram and instrumentation of the laboratory facility which will make it possible to simulate and measure the dust-laden flow by the modified method of spectral transparency on three wavelengths with the error of not more than 10% was developed on the basis of the dust test bench.
In conclusion, the report of I.V. Komarov, K.V. Yepishin and L.L. Myakinkova (Federal Research Centre for Projects Evaluation and Consulting Services, Moscow) “Formation of Subject Matters for Research and Development Activities on Biosciences Priority with the Involvement of Expert Community” was made on the formation of the subject matters of research and development activities with the involvement of expert community and the decision on the formation of expert team for two subject panels “Biotechnologies” and “Medicine and Public Health” which fit within the scope of priority of science, engineering and technologies “Biosciences” was made. Expert activities with these suggestions are carried out even now. Selection and analysis are performed on the basis of the following criteria: scientific novelty, practical significance, topicality, protectability and other parameters. Special attention was drawn to the issues of performability of the suggested research on the available scientific basis and labor supply. Also the scientific status of those organizations, institutions which provided the propositions is very important. As a result, the number of propositions which were found the most prospective and requiring the deeper examination and justification for the purpose of their submission for the first-priority consideration by the Ministry of Education and Sciences of the Russian Federation in order to form the subject matters for research and development activities was selected.
Participants were very interested in the Test Bench Workshop where the workshop reports were presented on all topics of the conference. Increased interest in the conference within recent years and larger amount of young speakers were noticeable.
Roundtable discussion was held at the end; it reflected the prospects for the development of laser physics, laser technologies and their application in medicine, biology and geo-ecology as well as the conference results.
As a result of the conference, taking into account the increasing interest of participants in the tasks of study of aerosols which have different nature, bioliquids and new materials, the following decision was made – to support the work of organizing committee of the conference on the broadening of circle of report topics with regard to the application of laser and information technologies in different fields of science and technologies. The next, 22nd International Conference “LASER INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN MEDICINE, BIOLOGY AND GEO-ECOLOGY” will be held on 8th-12th of September 2014 at Admiral Ushakov State Maritime University in Novorossiysk, Krasnodar Krai. All information can be found on the website: www.abrauconf.novtelecom.net. If you have propositions or if you need additional information you should address V.E. Privalov, Professor, Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University (195251, Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University, Institute of Physics, Nanotechnologies and Telecommunications), e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.